That's a tall order. Best bet is too pick an algae your interested in and do a search on it
Though since you mention chaet and caulerpa, I'll give some basics on those two.
Chaet is a free floating algae, as such it needs no sand or rock to attach too. A bare glass tank would do just fine.
Caulerpa on the other hand, needs some attachment point. It can be rock or sand beds.
Common free floating algaes found in the hobby are Cheat, Ulva, Gracilaria and sometimes Agardhiella.